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Hillary Clinton makes Richard Nixon look like a piker.

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10 fascinating facts about Richard Nixon

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This is from the National Constitution Center. 

Today Nixon would have been 103 years old.

Richard Nixon was one of the best-known American politicians of the 20thcentury’s second half, and one of the most controversial. So how much do you know about the 37th President on the occasion of his birthday?

RichardNixonNixon burst on to the political scene just after World War II, when he won seats in the United States House of Representatives and the Senate from California. His political career ended in August 1974, with his historic resignation during the Watergate scandal.

In between, Nixon became one of the most famous figures in the world and fixture in national politics. Here are a few things you may, or may not know, about his roller coaster career.

1. Nixon and Franklin Roosevelt are the only two people to appear on a national presidential ticket five times. Nixon won election in four of the five races, as did FDR. Nixon was the winning vice presidential candidate in 1952 and 1956, and he won the 1968 and 1972 presidential elections. Roosevelt won four presidential elections and lost as a vice presidential candidate in 1920.

2. Nixon had a chance to attend Harvard but had to decline. As a student, Richard Nixon was third in his class and was offered a tuition grant to Harvard, but he was needed at home by his family.

3. He was also an outstanding law student. After graduating from Whittier College in California, Nixon received a full scholarship to Duke Law and he graduated third in his class.

4. Nixon was a lieutenant commander in the Navy during World War II.He served in a variety of administrative positions, but didn’t see combat during his time in the Pacific.

5. Richard Nixon almost became an FBI agent in the 1930s. Nixon applied to the agency but never heard back about his application. He has been accepted but then budget cuts eliminated his position.

6. Nixon was only 39 years old when he ran for vice president in 1952.Presidential candidate Dwight Eisenhower didn’t have a preference for a running mate, and party leaders favor Nixon for his anti-Communist stance and his strength in California.

7. Nixon survived two potentially fatal political losses in 1960 and 1962.Defeats in the presidential campaign against John F. Kennedy and the 1962 Californian governor’s race led many political observers to predict Nixon’s career was over. Within six years, he was President after winning a hard-fought campaign in 1968.

8. Nixon used the comedy show “Laugh In” to get elected. At least, that is what Nixon reportedly said after he did a cameo appearance on the show just weeks before the 1968 election. Hubert Humphrey refused to do a similar appearance on the show.

9. Nixon was the first President to visit a nation not recognized by our own government. Nixon’s trip to China in 1972 was unique, since the United States recognized Taiwan as the legitimate government of mainland China.

10. The Checkers speech was partially intended as an inside joke about FDR. The national TV speech that saved Nixon’s career in 1952 was a masterful political move, but the reference to Checkers the dog was meant as a jab at FDR’s famous Fala speech that Republicans would get. Years later, Nixon was still upset that it was called the Checkers speech and people mostly remembered the reference to his pet dog.

10 fascinating facts about President Lyndon B. Johnson

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This is from the National Constitution Center.

Lyndon Baines Johnson the man whose policies has almost completely destroyed black families in America.

 

On the occasion of President Lyndon Johnson’s 107th birthday, the National Constitution Center looks at 10 interesting facts about one of the most colorful and controversial figures in American history.

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If Johnson hadn’t become President after John F. Kennedy’s assassination in November 1963, he still would have been a remarkable historical figure because of his career in Congress.

After becoming President, Johnson’s time in office came during a huge period of societal change in American society, marked by the Civil Rights revolution and the Vietnam War.

Johnson’s legacy among historians and the public has also evolved since his death in 1973. Indeed, along with Richard Nixon, who followed him as President, Johnson is seen as a complex figure involved in many significant initiatives and events that have marked modern American history.

So how did someone born into poverty in Texas and who started out as a school teacher become one of the pivotal figures of the 20th Century?

Here are 10 fascinating milestones about Johnson’s life and career:

1.    Johnson was indeed from humble origins. He was born on August 27, 1908 in Stonewall, Texas. The Johnson family had been in the area for generations, but Johnson’s father had financial problems and the future President grew up under difficult circumstances. His sympathy for the less fortunate became a factor when Senator and President Johnson had a chance to affect social policy laws.

2.    Johnson’s first career was as a teacher.  As a student at Southwest Texas State Teachers College, Johnson was assigned to a tiny Hispanic school in a deeply impoverished area, where he thrived. Johnson left his brief career as a teacher after four years to pursue politics during the Great Depression.

3.    Johnson’s political ambitions were clear early in his career. His father had served in the Texas state legislature and Johnson became a congressional aid in 1931. By 1937, he won a special election to the U.S. House to replace a deceased House member named James Buchanan from Texas.

4.    Johnson was the “surrogate son” of powerful House Speaker Sam Rayburn. The legendary Rayburn had served in the Texas legislature with Johnson’s father and Rayburn backed Johnson’s fast rise as a leader within Congress.

5.     Johnson nearly was killed in World War II. Johnson entered the Naval Reserves while still a Congressman, and on his only bombing run in the South Pacific, he boarded a plane called the Wabash Cannonball for his mission. A last-second trip off the plane to use a bathroom saved Johnson’s life. On his return from the facilities, Johnson boarded another plane that survived the mission. The Wabash Cannonball crashed, with a total loss of life.

6.    The Landslide Lyndon incident. Johnson won election to the U.S. Senate in 1948 after winning a Democratic primary by 87 votes. Allegations of voter fraud are still debated to this day about the election.

7.    Johnson quickly became the Senate’s leader. In 1953, he was named Senate minority leader after opposing Republicans gained control of the Senate. Two years later, Johnson became Majority Leader when Democrats regained power.

8.    The energetic Johnson reshaped the role of Senate Majority leader.Despite having a heart attack in 1955, Johnson worked tirelessly to promote himself, and agendas he backed, including Civil Rights legislation and the American space program. His ability to persuade politicians of both parties was legendary.

9.    Why did Johnson decide to become Vice President? Johnson lost a bitter campaign against Kennedy in the 1960 Democratic primary, and the Kennedys shocked observers by choosing Johnson as JFK’s running mate. One theory is that Johnson saw the position of Vice President as expanding his power base in the Senate. But after the 1960 election, Johnson was rebuffed when he tried to chair the Democratic conference in the Senate and his fellow Democrats saw the move as a violation of the separation of powers between the executive and legislative branches.

10.      The Johnson presidency was incredibly active. In addition to pursuing the Vietnam War, President Johnson pressed on with an expansive slate of programs labeled as the Great Society that included three landmark Civil Rights bills and Medicare. But Vietnam’s impact damaged Johnson’s political base severely and he declined to run in the 1968 presidential election.

10 Things Revealed About the Nixon White House

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This is from Mental Floss.

What will history say about Barack Hussien Obama?

The things Obama is doing now makes Richard Nixon look like a piker.

Nixon was correct about Kennedy and the 1960 election.

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Image Credit: Getty Images

Tim Weiner, author of One Man Against the World, writes of Richard Nixon, “He wielded power like a Shakespearian king.” Nixon’s story is well known—the tragedy of a “great, bad man” who, while fighting wars and subversives, would begin spying on—and lying to—friend and foe alike. Weiner, a Pulitzer Prize winner, is a master researcher, delving into source documents to reconstruct histories with nuance and insight.

The Nixon White House delivered an unprecedented trove of material. Practically everything was recorded, and accounts from all of the key players would eventually be delivered through grand jury testimony, diaries, and minutes from White House committees. “The result,” he writes, “is that every quotation and each citation herein is on the record: no blind quotes, no unnamed sources, and no hearsay statements.”

The book is an extraordinary look at how the personal, political, and historical meld together and influence the way power is wielded at the highest echelon. Here are ten things One Man Against the World reveals about Richard Nixon and the presidency.

1. NIXON THOUGHT KENNEDY STOLE THE 1960 ELECTION.

Nixon narrowly lost the 1960 election to John F. Kennedy, and believed “to his dying day” that the presidency had been stolen from him. Fourteen thousand votes in three states would have made the difference. He returned to California where he proceeded to lose the 1962 gubernatorial election by three times as many people as had voted against him for the presidency. When he conceded defeat for the governorship, drunk, he famously told the gathered press, “You won’t have Nixon to kick around anymore.”

But he wasn’t finished. He spent the next four years “ceaselessly cultivating future campaign supporters: corporate kingpins and foreign rulers, county chairmen and congressional leaders. He was blazing a trail back to power.” He raised $30 million from American donors—then a record amount—and made secret (and Weiner argues, illegal) political overtures to the South Vietnamese government (the war being the dominant political issue of the day). He was set for a comeback, and won the presidency in 1968.

2. HE SENT A SECRET MESSAGE TO CHINA IN HIS INAUGURAL ADDRESS.

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The saying “Only Nixon could go to China” refers to Nixon’s career as a strident anti-communist and Cold Warrior. His overtures were seen as coming from a position of strength, and the visit was a long time in the making. During his inaugural address, he directly addressed the Soviet Union, saying, “Our lines of communication will be open.” The next line was a coded message to the Chinese government: “We seek an open world—open to ideas, open to the exchange of goods and people—a world in which no people, great or small, will live in angry isolation.”

The phrase “angry isolation” referred to an essay on China that he had written for Foreign Affairs, a celebrated journal devoted to foreign policy. In that article, he wrote, “There is no place on this planet for a billion of its potentially able people to live in angry isolation.” The Chinese government picked up on Nixon’s message, and took the unprecedented step of printing the entirety of his inaugural address in the People’s Daily, official newspaper of the Chinese Communist Party. Nixon visited China in 1972.

3. EVEN THE NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY THOUGHT NIXON’S WIRETAPS WERE “DISREPUTABLE.”

During his time in office, Nixon wiretapped friend and foe alike. He trusted no one and hated leaks most of all. One aide who was wiretapped later wrote, “You cannot square a personal friendship and total trust and intimacy with his authorizing of tapping your phone…you cannot run a government that way.” By 1973, 1,600 people were on the U.S. government’s watch list, including anti-war activists, politicians, and journalists. The National Security Agency’s official history calls the government surveillance “disreputable if not outright illegal.”

4. HE HATED DOMESTIC POLITICS AND WASTED LITTLE EFFORT ON IT.

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Nixon hated domestic politics, which he regarded as “building outhouses in Peoria.” He ordered the assembly of a “Domestic Council,” which would be the local counterpart to the National Security Council. He was eventually told that such a program was impossible because he had never bothered to define an actual domestic agenda. The so-called “war on crime” was useful in that it helped him score political points and expanded wiretapping statutes. He signed the Environmental Protection Agency into law despite believing it to be a capitulation to those interested in “destroying the system.” Domestic politics simply didn’t matter enough to warrant a fight. “This country could run itself domestically without a president,” he said. “You need a president for foreign policy.”

5. HE WAS A PROPONENT OF THE “MADMAN THEORY.”

In 1969, he wanted the secretary of defense to “exercise the DEFCON,” referring to America’s state of military readiness. (DEFCON 5 means things are fine; DEFCON 1 means imminent total thermonuclear war.) DEFCON isn’t an arbitrary shorthand for politicians and the public. Changing its status means shifting military disposition, from moving warships to having pilots ready to leap into their bombers and erase countries from the map. Nixon wanted the DEFCON changed to convince Moscow that he was insane and thus not to be trifled with. This was called the “madman theory.”

6. HE PRACTICED FOR THE END OF THE WORLD.

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Not long after taking office, the president participated in a dress rehearsal for World War III. He was flown aboard the Airborne Command Post, a nuclear command and control aircraft. (Four Airborne Command Posts remain operational today; no single plane can run the apocalypse effectively.) From there, he was walked through what might be expected if nuclear war broke out, and how to order the deployment of intercontinental ballistic missiles, and so on. His chief of staff took notes during the rehearsal, writing at the time that the president had “a lot of questions about our nuclear capability and kill results. Obviously worried about the lightly tossed-about millions of deaths.”

7. HE WAS AGAINST EXECUTIVE PRIVILEGE BEFORE HE WAS FOR IT.

Once the Watergate scandal broke, Nixon fought madly to protect members of the White House staff from having to testify before Congress. To shut things down, he decided to invoke “executive privilege,” which allows members of the executive branch to resist subpoenas and interference from the legislative and judicial branches. Twenty-five years earlier, Truman used that power to keep Congress—eager to find communists—from poring through White House personnel records. One congressman who, at the time, fought bitterly against executive privilege? Richard Nixon. (In fact, the first chapter of his 1962 memoir is devoted to his opposition to it.)

8. HE KEPT THE WHITE HOUSE TAPES BECAUSE THEY WERE WORTH MILLIONS OF DOLLARS.

The biggest question one might ask about Richard Nixon concerns his famous tapes. Why did he record everything and, more importantly, why didn’t he destroy the tapes once it was clear that they might convict him? Concerning the first, Weiner asserts that Nixon recorded everything as a hedge against Henry Kissinger, his national security advisor and eventual Secretary of State. He knew Kissinger would eventually write a book about working in the White House, and he knew that Kissinger would lionize himself. Nixon believed the tapes would be valuable not only in writing his own memoirs (in which he looks better than Kissinger), but also as a unique resource in and of themselves.

In short, the tapes would be worth millions of dollars. As such, he held onto them until the bitter end. Nixon was no fool, though. Once the sharks started circling, he knew the tapes needed to be destroyed, but there was a problem: who would strike the match? It’s not like the president of the United States could load up a wheelbarrow, cart them to the south lawn of the White House, and start a bonfire. By this time everyone learned of the tapes (New York Post headline at the time: NIXON BUGGED HIMSELF). In fact, nobody could risk destroying them without almost certainly going to prison. And so the tapes remained, and continue to surprise all of us even to this day.

9. NIXON VOWED THERE WOULD BE “NO WHITEWASH AT THE WHITE HOUSE.”

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Not long after Dwight Eisenhower chose him as a running mate in 1952, Nixon was accused of having a political slush fund. Bill Rogers, Eisenhower’s eventual attorney general, investigated and found no wrongdoing. He encouraged Nixon to go on television and defend himself. Nixon followed that advice, and gave what became known as the “Checkers speech,” in which he admits to having only one time in his life taken a campaign gift. Someone on the trail heard that Nixon’s daughters wanted a puppy, and one day a crate containing a dog arrived at the Nixon residence. His daughters were thrilled, and named the dog Checkers. “And I just want to say this right now,” vowed Nixon, “regardless of what they say about it, we’re going to keep it.”

Rogers would later spend four unhappy years as Nixon’s secretary of state. When the president finally discussed Watergate in a national address from the Oval Office, it was again Rogers who encouraged him. In that speech, Nixon famously said, “There can be no whitewash at the White House.” Those guilty, said Nixon, must “bear the liability and pay the penalty.” (He wasn’t talking about himself at the time, but it still worked out that way.)

10. HE RESIGNED IN 1974, BUT THE BUSINESS OF STATE WENT ON.

Nixon resigned on August 8, 1974, after it became clear that the House would impeach him for obstruction of justice in the Watergate investigation, and that the Senate would probably convict. The next day, the White House staff and service staff gathered, and Nixon said goodbye to them in a brief speech. He then walked to Marine One and departed. David Ransom, a foreign service officer, observed from the White House balcony the moment of liftoff. He described it as “almost a haunted scene.” Two men stood with Ransom: the White House chef and the secretary of defense, James Schlesinger. Said Schlesinger, as he emptied his pipe: “It’s an interesting constitutional question, but I think I’m still the secretary of defense. So I am going back to my office.” Schlesinger asked the chef what he was going to do now. “I’m going to prepare lunch for the president,” he said, and went off to prepare a midday meal for Gerald Ford.

10 Deadly Mistakes Made By US Presidents

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This is from ListVerse.

 

Throughout American history, presidents have done things both good and bad. They have made mistakes which have cost lives, and many times they have gotten away with it. This is a list of some of the things that presidents have done which caused casualties and fatalities.

10 Bill Clinton
Not Killing Bin Laden

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Photo credit: USAF

 

In 2001, just hours before the attacks on the World Trade Center, former President Bill Clinton told an audience in Australia that he once nearly killed Osama bin Laden. The recording, which neither Clinton nor the audience would have known the significance of at the time, serves as one of the most sadly ironic footnotes in history.

In 1998, bin Laden was not considered the danger that he later became, but he was still on the government’s radar. He had been wanted for bombing the US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya but had never committed significant attacks toward the United States. The government, though, suspected that the terrorist leader was capable of far more dangerous attacks. Finally, after years of attempting to find him, he was tracked to a small town in Afghanistan called Kandahar, where he was suspected of being held in the governor’s residence.

The military wanted to launch a strike against the town which would have killed bin Laden, but to do so would have put hundreds of civilian lives at risk. To avoid the deaths of the 300 or so townspeople, President Clinton called off the strike. It was also believed that the strike wouldn’t be successful because bin Laden left the room which the missile was aimed at. A second strike was proposed in May 1999, but a recent mishap involving a CIA bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade made the military wary of another possible misstep. Another chance would never come their way, and two years later, bin Laden committed the deadliest attack on US soil in American history. We may never know what difference it may have made had bin Laden been killed when we had the chance.

9 Richard Nixon

Pakistani Genocide Of Bangladesh

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Photo credit: Jack E. Kightlinger

 

In 1971, tensions were flaring between the military government of Pakistan and the government of India. India and Pakistan have had issues for centuries, but due to increasing problems between the countries, there seemed to be war on the horizon. Pakistan at the time was a close economic and political ally of the United States, while India held a lesser position. Despite the Muslim dictatorship of the country, President Nixon and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger decided to provide economic and military support for Pakistan in the event of a war (which there was later that year).

However, the weapons which were secretly given to the Pakistani government were used for a much more sinister purpose—the genocide of the Bengali people. It’s estimated that nearly 200,000 people were killed by Pakistan, and according to documents by the State Department, neither Nixon nor Kissinger seemed to care. The slaughtering did nothing to stop the United States from continuing its support. The private US investments (many of the companies which were in Pakistan donated money to the Nixon campaign) seemed to be more important than the lives of the Bengali people.

At the time, the Indian government was receiving support from the Soviet Union, and the White House Tapes revealed the feelings of the president: Nixon once said that India needed “a mass famine.” When Kenneth Keating, a Republican serving as ambassador to India, confronted Nixon about the suffering of the Bengali people, Nixon called him “a traitor.” Finally, this all came to a head when India and Pakistan went to war. The cost of Nixon’s support for Pakistan was the loss of hundreds of thousands of lives in the region, for which he showed a callousness which displayed his lack of remorse for his lethal actions.

8 Herbert Hoover
The Election Of General Jorge Ubico

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In 1930, President Lazaro Chacon suffered a stroke and resigned, which set about a series of events through which General Jorge Ubico would be elected. After several leaders were removed by either the Guatemalan army or the United States government, Ubico finally proved himself to be a worthy leader in the eyes of the United States.

His most appealing quality to the United States was his undying devotion to the United Fruit Company. He offered them vast tracts of land in the country along with complete access to the labor force. He knew that by portraying himself as a servant to the United States, he would remain the sole leader of Guatemala. In fact, Ubico made such an impression on American ambassador Sheldon Whitehouse that Whitehouse said he was “the best friend the Untied States has in Latin America.”

After a rigged election in 1931 which was sanctioned by Herbert Hoover, Ubico started a campaign to create a highly efficient military dictatorship in Guatemala. He became an ostentatious man who wore extravagant military uniforms wherever he went in an effort to emulate his hero, Napoleon Bonaparte. He started to systematically kill off all opposition and democratic activity. His abuse of the labor force soon bubbled over, though, and after more than 20 years of a bloody, repressive regime, Ubico was removed from power in 1944.

7  Franklin D. Roosevelt

SS St. Louis

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Photo via Wikimedia

 

Photo via Wikimedia

In 1939, The SS St. Louis set sail from Hamburg, Germany, to Havana, Cuba, with 937 Jewish refugees seeking to escape Nazi Germany. At the time, the United States had immigration quotas which allowed for only a certain number of immigrants to stay in the United States at any given time. The refugees went to Cuba ostensibly as tourists but planned to remain there until they could fill the quota numbers. However, when the Cuban government received word that they planned to stay there, they refused to allow the Jewish refugees to leave the ship. The non-Jewish passengers, though, were allowed to leave the ship.

Knowing what would happen if he took them back to Germany, the captain of the ship, Gustav Schroder, refused to allow the Jewish refugees to return across the Atlantic. The Jewish passengers were treated well onboard the ship: Captain Schroder tried to treat the passengers with respect, giving them kosher foods which were being rationed in Germany at the time, along with Jewish religious services. He even provided a cinema for the passengers. He next tried to dock the ship in Florida, but the Roosevelt administration would not allow the passengers on US soil due to immigration laws. When the ship neared the Florida coast, warning shots were fired.

Captain Schroder was so desperate to save the Jewish passengers that he tried to wreck the ship and force the American government to take them, but the Coast Guard, hearing of his plan, was ordered to follow the ship. Despite knowing full well the fates of the Jewish people aboard the ship, Roosevelt told them to leave.

Roosevelt, who was considering an unprecedented third run for president, did not want to engage in the plight of the passengers of the ship because public opinion leaned toward strict immigration laws. Eventually, the British government coordinated efforts to place the passengers into countries in Europe, but Nazi Germany eventually conquered many of the countries where the refugees were placed. It’s been estimated that a quarter of those aboard the SS St. Louis were exterminated in Nazi concentration camps.

6 Abraham Lincoln
Dakota War Of 1862

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Photo via Wikimedia

 

Abraham Lincoln is certainly one of the most beloved presidents of all time. His handling of the country during the Civil War counts as one of the greatest achievements of any American president before or since. However, one of the most overlooked aspects of his presidency was his treatment of the Sioux tribe. It is certainly one of the darkest spots on Lincoln’s record and taints his reputation as an American saint.

In 1851, the Sioux ceded massive tracts of their land in exchange for cash payments. By 1862, the federal government owed the Sioux nearly $1.4 million. Chief Little Crow attempted to go before the government, but the president refused to acknowledge him. A series of skirmishes started by the Sioux led to Lincoln giving permission for General John Pope to fight back. This led to the Dakota War of 1862, in which the Union government went on the warpath against the Sioux, who were only fighting for payment they’d been promised.

Of course, the American government crushed the Sioux uprising almost as soon as it began. On December 26, 1862, 300 Sioux were to be executed; while Lincoln pardoned most of them, 38 were still executed in the largest mass execution in American history. Over the years, the Dakota War disappeared from history. While the Civil War and the freeing of the slaves have been used to uplift Lincoln to a spot higher than many other presidents, his war with the Sioux over their rightful payment has not been forgotten.

5  Andrew Jackson

Treaty Of New Echota

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In 1835, five years after the Indian Removal Act had been signed by Andrew Jackson, a small group of Cherokee tribal members signed the Treaty of New Echota, which forced the Cherokee to leave their tribal lands in Tennessee and move west of the Mississippi River to the Oklahoma territory. The signing of the document itself was already illegal since the entire Cherokee tribal leadership had not agreed to the removal of their lands, but it soon came out that speculators had pushed for the signing of the treaty so they could purchase the newly available land for profit.

In 1838, the Cherokee tribe was forced to relocate in what has been called the Trail of Tears. The brutal march led to the deaths of 4,000 Cherokee who had been forced out of their ancestral land. Andrew Jackson showed no remorse for his actions, and the treaty, while technically illegal, was upheld by the entirety of the Cherokee nation out of honor.

Through abuses by officials which were sanctioned by Jackson, many more Native Americans were killed or cheated out of their land. Many of the other treaties signed during Jackson’s presidency only led to further wars with the Native Americans and more bloodshed. While the Treaty of New Echota was just one of many treaties used against the Native Americans, it led to the most pain for people who were forced out of their land by a president who was led by cruel convictions.

4 Franklin Pierce
Bleeding Kansas

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In 1854, with the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the decision of whether or not slavery was to be legal in Kansas was left to the settlers of the state rather than to Congress. Franklin Pierce thought that this would be a good resolution to the slavery issue without involving the government. He believed that, with the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the whole headache of deciding a state’s slavery status was behind him. His assumption proved wrong.

As anti-slavery forces heard about the rise in pro-slavery settlers, they began to arrive en masse to sway the pro-slavery vote in Kansas. The abolitionists began to arm the settlers in an effort to keep them from being forced out of the state. This eventually erupted into bloody conflict as fighting broke out between the pro- and anti-slave forces. This was dubbed “Bleeding Kansas” by Horace Greeley, editor of the New York Tribune.

In 1856, all hell broke loose with the Sacking of Laurence, in which Missourians invaded the city and destroyed homes, businesses, and other properties. The Missourians were pro-slavery, and the city of Laurence had been built by anti-slavery forces. The fighting continued throughout the state, all due to Franklin Pierce’s insistence that the federal government stay out of the slavery issue.

3 George W. Bush
Niger Uranium Forgeries

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In 2001, the Italian military supposedly presented the CIA with evidence that Saddam Hussein had attempted to buy yellowcake uranium from the government of Niger. This occurred in the aftermath of the World Trade Center attacks, and the United Nations was gathering evidence of whether or not Hussein was attempting to create and store weapons of mass destruction. Yellowcake uranium is one of the main ingredients in the creation of nuclear weapons—which the Iraqi government had been doing, according to the United States—and the documents only seemed to prove this accusation.

However, for their entire existence, the documents were suspected of being forgeries. Despite the questions of their authenticity, the Bush administration used them in the case for war with Iraq with the infamous words, “The British government has learned that Saddam Hussein recently sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa.” Even before President Bush gave the speech in which he put forward the evidence that Iraq had been attempting to get uranium, French intelligence had said that the documents were not hard evidence. Despite this, the American coalitionwent to war with Iraq.

The controversy behind the documents and the justification for war would not die down. In 2002, American generals and CIA agents had attempted to verify the documents, but their efforts came to nothing. In 2004, an Italian source claimed that he had helped forge the documents, and both British and French forces found that the documents had indeed been forged. In 2003, word broke that an investigation by the Atomic Energy Agency had also found the documents to be forged. None of these findings affected the war. Many lives were lost, but there were no prosecutions despite the key foundation of the War in Iraq being entirely fake.

2 Barack Obama
ATF Gun-Walking

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While gun-walking has been in use by the ATF since 2006 with some success, it wasn’t until 2009 that President Obama authorized then–Attorney General Eric Holder to use the Department of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms to tag several deadly assault rifles so they could be sold by gun dealers near the border to “straw buyers” who would then sell the weapons to the Mexican cartels. This was all done under the code name “Operation Gunrunner.” Not only was this all highly illegal, but when the guns did manage to get into cartel hands, they were used to execute Mexican citizens and ceremoniously dumped so there could be no trace. While many of the straw buyers were caught and prosecuted, none of the cartel targets were actually caught, leaving them in the clear.

After the failure of the operation, the order was for all documents to be buried. According to a Department of Justice report, of the 2,000 guns being tracked, only 710 of them had been recovered by 2012. This means that over 1,000 assault rifles may still be in the hands of the Mexican cartels. The operation would have remained secret if it weren’t for the murder of United States border patrol agent Brian Terry, who was killed by a Mexican cartel in 2010. After his death, investigations discovered that the tagged guns were related to 150 murders in Mexico.

In 2011, members of Congress began to investigate the operation and started to wonder: Who gave the order for it? Former Attorney General Holder denied giving the order. He refused to give any related documents to Congress, and he was placed in contempt of court. When President Obama was asked about his part in the operation, he invoked executive privilege for the first time in his presidency. The investigation, while never formally closed, eventually came to nothing, and there has been no further word about who was at fault.

1 James Madison
War Of 1812

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During the Napoleonic Wars, many British war vessels patrolled the Atlantic Ocean for French trading vessels. This often led to altercations with American ships that did business with both Britain and France. The frequent provocative acts by the British eventually angered President Madison too much, and he declared war in 1812. This proved to be a great mistake.

The British government was angered by their defeat during the War for Independence and were out for blood. They unleashed the most vicious assault that the United States has ever known. After crushing the American naval fleet, they launched the first and only invasion of the United States. They overwhelmed the American armies, and it seemed that they were going to retake the lands they had lost. They marched to Washington, DC, where they proceeded to sack and burn the city. Madison began to realize that by declaring war, he may have sowed the seeds of destruction for America.

By 1814, however, after much fighting in which the United States managed to push back the British invasion, Madison decided to press for a truce with the British government. Both governments came to realize that prolonged war would be unprofitable on both sides of the Atlantic and agreed to peace. They signed the Treaty of Ghent on December 24, 1814, which put an end to the War of 1812, although fighting would continue for some time. By the end of the violence, an estimated 20,000 Americans had lost their lives.

10 Bizarre Cold War Tales Left Out Of History Books

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This is from ListVerse.

I found this list fascinating.

 

Although we already know a bit about the famous affairs that happened during the Cold War, that particular era spanned more than four decades—enough time for a lot of wackiness. Aside from learning about the slew ofridiculous government projects, let’s also get to know some of the other little-known, extremely strange events which took place in that period.

10North Korea And The US Almost Went To War Over A Tree

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Photo credit: SPC 4 LONG

This one arguably ranks somewhere among the most bizarre reasons to start a war. Known as the Poplar Tree Incident, the whole fiasco started on August 17, 1976. American soldiers tried to trim a huge poplar tree that had been obscuring visibility in the middle of the Joint Security Area of the Demilitarized Zone. Previously, the North Koreans had refused to allow the men to trim the tree. Now, they murdered two of the Americans and injured another nine.

In the aftermath, the US debated whether to strike back. Instead, they decided to cut down the tree while showcasing an overwhelming display of force against the North. On August 21, and in full view of their North Korean counterparts on the other side, a convoy of American and South Korean soldier-engineers drove up to the middle of the DMZ and cut the tree down. Dozens of helicopters and assorted aircraft also flew overhead as a deterrent to the hapless North Koreans who could only watch the event unfold.

While the incident triggered fears of a war, it instead led to North Korean President Kim Il-Sung conveying a message of “regret” to the families of those killed—a rare statement at the time.

9The US Created A Ring Of Copper Around The Earth

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Photo credit: United States Post Office Department

 

 

At one point the Earth had its own man-made ring of metal—thanks to the approximately 500 million copper needles the US launched into space in 1963.

Known as Project West Ford, the operation resolved to cure a major American weakness against a perceived Soviet attack on its undersea cables, which would have disrupted its long-range communications system. To prevent this, the Americans looked to the ionosphere, which was beyond the reach of the Soviets but still at the mercy of unpredictable solar storms. Then sometime in 1958, Walter E. Morrow—a scientist from MIT’s Lincoln Labs in Boston—suggested placing a copper ring around the Earth, which would be immune to both Soviet attacks and solar disruptions.

After a first attempt failed in 1961, the US finally launched the copper needles in 1963 and also successfully tested it out. While most of the needles have since fallen back to Earth, it is estimated that thousands of clumped ones are still in orbit today.

8The US Air Force Used Bears As Test Pilots

Think sending cats, dogs, and monkeys into space isn’t enough? How about using a sedated bear to test out the ejection capsule of a supersonic aircraft? We’re not kidding. The US Air Force regularly used black and Himalayan bears to test out the ejection capsule of its supersonic B-58 bomber in the ’50s and ’60s.

The premier intercontinental bomber of the Air Force, the B-58 Hustler, could reach Mach 2 and had been designed to carry nuclear bombs deep into Soviet territory. While superb in its design, the B-58’s poor-quality ejection capsule killed several crewmembers during one test flight. This particular incident forced the designers to design a better capsule, which they then tested on the ground using unemployed people. When it came time for live runs several thousand feet up in the air, however, the designers opted to use man-sized bears as test dummies.

After being sedated, these bears were strapped inside the ejection capsules and hurled out of the streaking aircraft before parachuting back down to be examined by its developers. While no deaths occurred during the tests, the animals did suffer major injuries, including broken bones and internal bleeding.

7The Zambian Schoolteacher’s Strange Space Program

While we know the United States and Soviet Union were the two major players in the Space Race, Zambia also had its own space program. Sort of.

Edward Makuka Nkoloso—a small-town elementary schoolteacher with an impossibly big dream—started his ambitious project in 1964 by recruiting 10 of his countrymen, a missionary, and a 17-year-old girl (along with her cat) and training them in his one-of-a-kind space training program. He rolled his trainees downhill inside barrels and had them ride swings that he would then cut after they reached the highest point. He claimed these methods would help the trainees get used to the weightlessness of space. When it came to simulating walking on the Moon and eventually Mars, Nkoloso taught his trainees the “correct method” of moving around by having themwalk on their hands.

For all his enthusiasm, however, Nkoloso failed to get any government support for his strange program. He also complained that his trainees seemed to be preoccupied with other matters. The 17-year-old, for one, ended up pregnant.

6The US Built An Underground Nuclear Ice Fortress In Greenland

If the British could come up with an aircraft carrier made of ice, then only the Americans could dream up something as radical as going under tons of ice for nuclear missile launch sites.

Wanting to know if nuclear missiles could be successfully stored underneath ice, and because they needed a location closer to the Soviet homeland, the Americans launched Project Iceworm in 1960 and set about building a massive underground complex called Camp Century in Greenland. At the time of its construction, the US officially billed the project as part of its scientific research to allay suspicion from the Danish government and the Soviet Union.

Virtually an underground city, the nuclear-powered Camp Century featured dozens of tunnels and trenches as well as a host of buildings that could accommodate up to 200 men. While the project seemed initially successful, the ever-moving ice sheets made Camp Century untenable, forcing the US to abandon the project in 1966.

5The British Annexed A Single Rock Islet

 

 

 

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Photo credit: Andy Strangeway

Amid the shadow of the historically more significant Falklands Islandsstands the uninhabited single rock islet of Rockall. Standing at just 20 meters (70 ft) and surrounded by miles of water (it is situated roughly 500 kilometers (300 mi) away from the British Isles), Rockall nevertheless received ample attention from the British government for security reasons. Specifically, they feared the uninhabited islet could be used by spies onboard Soviet submarines as an outpost to view missile tests.

Under orders from Queen Elizabeth, a contingent of Royal Marines landed on the islet in 1955 and planted a Union Jack flag along with a plaque. Due to the size of the island, the Marines noted the difficulty in using a helicopter to land them safely. One of them, a veteran rock climber named Brian Peel, even nearly got swept away by the waves after he tried to get some seaweed samples below the islet’s waterline.

4The Soviet Union Tricked Castro Into Giving Up His Nuclear Missiles

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Photo credit: Warren K. Leffler

As fate would have it, the Cuban Missile Crisis didn’t end with the Soviet Union agreeing to remove its nuclear missiles from Cuba in October 1962. The true ending came on November 22, 1962 when the Soviet Union successfully tricked Fidel Castro into giving up the remaining warheads still under his control.

Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev had contemplated letting the warheads, believed to number more than 100, stay in Cuba as a consolation to Castro, who believed the Soviet Union sold Cuba out in the negotiations. To complete the secret negotiations, he sent out First Deputy Premier Anastas Mikoyan to personally haggle with the Cuban leader. However, Mikoyan, after observing Castro’s bouts of paranoia, believed giving the missiles to a madman would be nothing short of suicide.

In the end, he told Castro how a Soviet law—which was really nonexistent—prevented the Soviet Union from providing other countries with nuclear missiles. Amazingly, Castro bought the lie and allowed the Soviets to ship the remaining warheads back home by December 1962.

3Joseph McCarthy’s Campaign Against Gays

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Photo credit: United Press International

While Senator Joseph McCarthy will forever be known as the demagogue who led the communist witch hunts of the ’40s and ’50s, he’s largely forgotten for his role in the lesser-known but more devastating Lavender Scare.

In a paranoia-filled atmosphere, the government feared that gay employees sympathetic to the communist cause would be weak-willed enough to give away state secrets. The federal and state governments responded by firing hundreds of employees who had been otherwise loyal Americans. In fact, themajority of civil servants who resigned from their posts were accused not with communism but with homosexuality. McCarthy himself inextricably linked communism with homosexuality, claiming that those who opposed him must either be gay or communist.

According to historians, the Lavender Scare had two lasting effects. It forced the gay community to go underground and become social activists, and it influenced American foreign policy to become more “macho,” thereby dragging the United States toward the Vietnam War.

2The US Airdropped Tons Of Candy On Berlin

We’ve previously discussed how World War III could’ve started with Germany as the battlefield again, after the Soviet Union blockaded the Allied-held parts of Berlin to force the Allies to withdraw. Unfortunately for the Soviets, their scheme failed after the Allies conducted a massive airlift to supply blockaded areas with foodstuffs and other necessities.

In the midst of this massive operation, one US Air Force pilot named Gail Halvorsen began dropping candy bars to children near Berlin’s Tempelhof Airport after he witnessed their resolve in one prior encounter. Halvorsen, touched by the children’s appeal not to abandon them to the Soviets, promised he would lift their spirits up with candy.

Pretty soon, news of the Candy Bomber and Uncle Wiggly Wings (he wiggled the wings of his plane so the children would recognize him) reached his commanding officer, who reprimanded him for flouting regulations. However, overwhelming positive media reaction convinced airlift chief General William Tunner to let Halvorsen continue his candy drops.

Soon, “Operation Little Vittles” involved the entire Air Force dropping tons of candy donated by the American Confectioners Association. Halvorsen—who later became a hugely beloved figure in Germany—revealed how one child told him the candy drops symbolized hope more than anything for the Berliners during those dark times.

1Nikita Khrushchev And Richard Nixon Squared Off Inside An American Kitchen

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Known as the “Kitchen Debate,” Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev and Vice President Richard Nixon had a day-long debate on which ideology could provide a better living standard for their respective peoples. Nixon—who was in Moscow on July 24, 1959 to grace the opening of the American National Exhibition at Sokolniki Park—argued how capitalism enabled the American people (especially the working class) to easily acquire affordable yet luxurious homes. To prove his point, he toured Khrushchev inside the kitchen of an American home on display and showed him all the appliances.

Never the man to back down, Khrushchev dismissed the items and said the Soviet Union would surpass American technology in a few years’ time. He also boasted how Soviet homes were built sturdier than the American ones. Amid the gesticulations (Khrushchev even cursed during off-the-record-moments) and grandstanding, however, both men ended up agreeingfocusing on kitchen appliances sounded a whole lot better than arguing about military weapons.

 

Hillary fired for lies, unethical behavior from Congressional job: former boss

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This is from Hot Air.

These stories need to be told, but the Obama/Clinton Media will not tell them.

The Obama/Clinton Media will try to discredit these stories and destroy the people telling these stories about the Hildabeast.

 

Dan Calabrese’s new column on Hillary Clinton’s past may bring the curtain down on her political future. Calabrese interviewed Jerry Zeifman, the man who served as chief counsel to the House Judiciary Committee during the Watergate hearings, has tried to tell the story of his former staffer’s behavior during those proceedings for years. Zeifman claims he fired Hillary for unethical behavior and that she conspired to deny Richard Nixon counsel during the hearings:

As Hillary Clinton came under increasing scrutiny for her story about facing sniper fire in Bosnia, one question that arose was whether she has engaged in a pattern of lying.

The now-retired general counsel and chief of staff of the House Judiciary Committee, who supervised Hillary when she worked on the Watergate investigation, says Hillary’s history of lies and unethical behavior goes back farther – and goes much deeper – than anyone realizes.

Jerry Zeifman, a lifelong Democrat, supervised the work of 27-year-old Hillary Rodham on the committee. Hillary got a job working on the investigation at the behest of her former law professor, Burke Marshall, who was also Sen. Ted Kennedy’s chief counsel in the Chappaquiddick affair. When the investigation was over, Zeifman fired Hillary from the committee staff and refused to give her a letter of recommendation – one of only three people who earned that dubious distinction in Zeifman’s 17-year career.

Why?

“Because she was a liar,” Zeifman said in an interview last week. “She was an unethical, dishonest lawyer. She conspired to violate the Constitution, the rules of the House, the rules of the committee and the rules of confidentiality.”

This isn’t exactly news. When her lachrymose performance arguably won her New Hampshire, Zeifman tried to tell people about Hillary’s duplicity. Patterico noticed the effort, but few others picked it up. Zeifman wrote at his website:

After hiring Hillary, Doar assigned her to confer with me regarding rules of procedure for the impeachment inquiry. At my first meeting with her I told her that Judiciary Committee Chairman Peter Rodino, House Speaker Carl Albert, Majority Leader “Tip” O’Neill, Parliamentarian Lou Deschler and I had previously all agreed that we should rely only on the then existing House Rules, and not advocate any changes. I also quoted Tip O’Neill’s statement that: “To try to change the rules now would be politically divisive. It would be like trying to change the traditional rules of baseball before a World Series.”

Hillary assured me that she had not drafted, and would not advocate, any such rules changes. However, as documented in my personal diary, I soon learned that she had lied. She had already drafted changes, and continued to advocate them. In one written legal memorandum, she advocated denying President Nixon
representation by counsel. In so doing she simply ignored the fact that in the committee’s then most recent prior impeachment proceeding, the committee had afforded the right to counsel to Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas.

I had also informed Hillary that the Douglas impeachment files were available for public inspection in the committee offices. She later removed the Douglas files without my permission and carried them to the offices of the impeachment inquiry staff — where they were no longer accessible to the public.

Hillary had also made other ethical flawed procedural recommendations, arguing that the Judiciary Committee should: not hold any hearings with – or take depositions of — any live witnesses; not conduct any original investigation of Watergate, bribery, tax evasion, or any other possible impeachable offense of President Nixon; and should rely solely on documentary evidence compiled by other committees and by the Justice Departments special Watergate prosecutor .

The right to counsel is considered one of the inviolable tenets of our justice system. It doesn’t speak well of ambitious attorneys working on a highly-charged political investigation that she wanted to deny someone the right to an attorney. Small wonder Zeifman questioned her ethics.

If all she did was to propose that as a tactic, that would not make it terribly concerning — but she did much more than just spitball ideas. When informed that public evidence showed a precedent for the right to counsel, she absconded with the files to eliminate the evidence. Does that remind anyone of later incidents in the Clinton narrative, such as the billing records for the Rose Law offices and the 900+ raw FBI files on political opponents of the Clintons?

Hillary’s advocates could accuse Zeifman of conjuring up these stories in order to draw attention to himself in the middle of a presidential campaign. However, Calabrese reports that Zeifman kept diaries during this period, urged on by friends mindful of the historical nature of the Watergate investigation. No one would have known at the time that this 27-year-old barracuda would have any sort of national significance — which makes Zeifman’s testimony all the more compelling.

We know that the Tuzla Dash covered for something much more significant in Hillary’s character. Zeifman shows that all of this forms a pattern of lies, obfuscations, deceit, and treachery. Don’t miss a word on either site.

Update: Not Senate, but the House.  I changed the title to Congressional, but Zeifman worked for the House Judiciary Committee.

Former DNC Chair Gets Schooled After Calling Scott Walker This One Word For Not Finishing College

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This is from Independent Journal Review.

So Scott Walker did not finish college and is not qualified to be president.

Let’s look at some as Sgt. Andy Micklin used to call them college boys that were president and look at their record.

Barack Obama the worst president ever, Jimmy Carter  the second worst president, Gerald Ford,Richard Nixon and Lyndon Johnson.

These the college boys that are/were president that their term in office that was less than stellar.

 

After former DNC Chair Howard Dean calls Scott Walker “unknowledgeable” and unqualified to be President of the United States for not having a college degree, the MSNBC panel reminds him of all the presidents who would have also been unqualified for office with those same standards.

Three stand out Presidents who never graduated college? George Washington, Abraham Lincoln and Harry Truman.

According to the Lumina Foundation over 60% of Americans haven’t graduated college. A match up of Hillary Clinton vs. Scott Walker would offer many contrasts, but an interesting wrinkle would be who could better connect with the majority of Americans without a degree.

Would you vote for a presidential candidate who didn’t finish college?

10 WEIRD THINGS YOU DIDN’T KNOW ABOUT HILLARY

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This is from Breitbarts Big Government.

 Every thing aboutHillary Clinton is weird.

 

Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton has been through the political battles more than any major politician since Richard Nixon – and she has a lot in common with her former foe. But despite the blanket coverage of the former First Lady and her ubiquitous husband, there are still a good number of interesting facts about her that have been buried over the years.

She likes to get her drink on. Hanging out in Cartagena in 2012 with her staff at the Summit of the Americas, then-Secretary of State Clinton was photographed with her hair down and a drink in her hand. Hillary apparently outdrank Sen. John McCain (R-AZ) when they were touring Estonia in 2004. According to a witness, “Hillary won. She stayed correct after four shots.” Terry McAuliffe, new governor of Virginia and Clinton ally, said, “She loves to sit, throw ‘em backShe’s a girl from Illinois who likes to throw ‘em down with the rest of us.” And, of course, she conveniently left town for a wine tour in Australia just in time to miss her first round of questioning on Benghazi.

She’s old. Yes, you knew this. But the media, which portrayed John McCain as ancient in 2008, when he was 72, has largely minimized the fact that Hillary will be 68 when she runs in 2016. Hillary says her favorite TV show of all time is The Ed Sullivan Show. The show stopped airing in 1971. She hasn’t driven a car since 1996. Her favorite music: the Beatles and the Rolling Stones. “I’m a child of the ‘60s, which is before any of you were born,” she said in 2011. She’s actually a child of the 1950s, given that she was born in 1947, when Harry Truman was president.

Her age has been seen by many commentators as a positive; it burgeons the “we owe it to her” campaign she will undoubtedly run come 2016. But she’s also out of touch, which is why her right hand, Phillippe Reines, mocked BuzzFeed for asking questions about her use of Facebook and Twitter.

She thinks women who accuse men of sexual harassment are “whiny.” Were Hillary Clinton a Republican, the report this week that she termed sexual harassment victims of former Senator Bob Packwood (R-OR) “whiney women.” According to the notes of her good friend, the late Professor Diane Blair, Hillary Clinton was “tired of all those whiney women, and she needs him on health care.”

Because political priorities take precedence over sexual mistreatment. This from the lady who proposes that she has faced glass ceilings and invokes the “war on women” regularly to push her agenda. That’s cynical stuff.

She’s intimately familiar with the criminal investigation process. No, this isn’t a reference to Benghazi. Hillary was the only First Lady in American history to be subpoenaed, for her role in the Whitewater scandal. And she was deposed, too – a lot, during Travelgate and Filegate. She was fingerprinted by the FBI. Her fingerprints were found on relevant documents requested by investigatorstwo years later, in her family quarters.

Hillary made cash from pollution. Before Bill was elected president, Hillary wasraking in the big dough via her law firm and sitting on various boards of corporations. Some of her money came from Lafarge – roughly $31,000, in a time when her husband was pulling down $35,000 as governor of Arkansas. That company was fined $1.8 million by the Environmental Protection Agency for pollution in 1992. The Clinton administration promptly knocked the fine down to under $600,000.

She loves Saul Alinsky. While Hillary’s 92-page college thesis for Wellesley College focused on the supposed shortcomings of Alinsky’s community organizing methods, it was highly complimentary of Alinsky’s aspirations. She was actually offered a job by Alinsky. Upon entry to the White House, Hillary and company requested that Wellesley keep the thesis under wraps. It was only opened up to the public after her husband left office, in 2001.

About those lesbian rumors… There is no evidence that Hillary is a lesbian. Edward Klein infamously quoted one of her classmates at Wellesley saying that “The notion of a woman being a lesbian was fascinating to Hillary. But she was much more interested in lesbianism as a political statement than a sexual practice.” Carl Bernstein wrote, “At Wellesley, her experimentation is known to have been with men. And to this day, she is playful, even flirtatious, in an innocent manner with men she likes, and less likely to physically embrace female friends or be ‘touchy’ with them or look deeply into their eyes in conversation, as she does with men.”

Hillary took cash from Wal-Mart. Between 1986 and 1992, Hillary sat on the board of Wal-Mart. Wal-Mart has been repeatedly criticized for supposed anti-union activity. Hillary did nothing about it. Her campaign biography in 2008 avoided all mention of Wal-Mart. One of Clinton’s fellow board members was one John Tate, who was famed for stating, “Labor unions are nothing but blood-sucking parasites living off the productive labor of people who work for a living.” According to ABC News, “A former board member told ABCNews.com that he had no recollection of Clinton defending unions during more than 20 board meetings held in private The tapes show Clinton in the role of a loyal company woman.” Clinton refused ABC News’ request for an interview on the subject.

Hillary may or may not have tried to join the Marines. But only as a political ploy. John Solomon of the Washington Post reported that Clinton tried to join up in 1975, before she married bill, likely in an attempt to make a stink about gender inequality. Jim Geraghty of National Review makes a good case that the entire story is nonsense.

She’s a weirdo. In Bob Woodward’s book, The Choice, the famed journalist reports that while in the White House, Hillary chatted with the long-dead former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, as well as the long-dead Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi. The conversations were facilitated by co-director of the Foundation for Mind Research Jean Houston, who provided Hillary with the basis for her sophomoric book on raising children, It Takes a Village and Other Lessons Children Teach Us. Houston even moved into the White House for a spell, according to Woodward. When Houston asked if Hillary would ever want to address Jesus, however, Hillary said that would be “too personal.”

President Clinton himself admitted to his wife’s odd Eleanor Roosevelt conversations in 2012 during a speech:

A special thanks to the members of the Roosevelt family who are here. And the one who is not, Eleanor, who made sure that the four freedoms were included in the preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. I know that because, as all of you famously learned when I served as president, my wife, now the secretary of state, was known to commune with Eleanor on a regular basis. And so she called me last night on her way home from Peru to remind me to say that. That Eleanor had talked to her and reminded her that I should say that.

This story alone demonstrates the power of leftist media bias. You probably haven’t heard it. But you know that Nancy Reagan loved her astrologers, don’t you?

In the end, it will be up to the American people to determine what is relevant about Clinton and what isn’t. But there’s little doubt that many of the most interesting facts about who Hillary Clinton is have been minimized for years. And it will take an awful lot of digging to get to the bottom of the foremost political chameleon of the past 40 years.

Which is worse?

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This is from Town Hall.

In my opinion the two-year gap in Lerner’s email is worse the 18.5 minute gap in Nixon’s tape.

Yet Nixon was almost impeached over Watergate.

 

Political Cartoons by Michael Ramirez

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